09 october 2013 3.00 pm

updates

District Profile

DISTRICT AT A GLANCE

Gangtok is a bustling, friendly hill station and the capital of the state and well as the district headquarter of the East district. Geographically, East district occupies the south-east corner of the state. East district is surrounded by North District in the Northern side and South & West districts in the western side. East district occupies an area of 964 km² and is the second smallest district area wise in the state. It is located at topographical location of Latitude - 27º 25’ North to 27º11’ North and Longitude – 88º 53’ East to 88º26’ 10” East. The District is considered to be a very sensitive area sharing boarder with People's Republic of China and Bhutan. It is the hub of all state level administrative activity too.

 

HISTORY OF THE DISTRICT

Not much is known about the early history of the East District. A very little whatever we get from different sources gives a glimpse of beginning which takes us back to the time of the construction of the hermitic Gangtok monastery in 1716. Gangtok remained a small hamlet until the construction of the Enchey Monastry. The construction of  Enchey monastry in 1840 made Gangtok a pilgrimage center. Gangtok came into importance after an English conquest in mid 19th century in response to a hostage crisis. After the defeat of the Tibetans by the British, Gangtok became a major stopover in the trade between Tibet and British India at the end of the 19th century.Most of the roads  in the area were built during this time.
In 1894, Thutob Namgyal , the Chogyal (king) of Sikkim, shifted the capital from Tumlong  to Gangtok, increasing the city's importance. East district became the centre for all administrative and social activities with shifting of capital . A new grand palace along with other state buildings was built in the new capital. Following India’s independence  in 1947, Sikkim became a nation-state with Gangtok as its capital. Sikkim came under the suzerainty of India, with the condition that it would retain its independence, by the treaty signed between the Chogyal (King of Sikkim)  and the then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. This pact gave the India control of external affairs of Sikkim. Trade between India and Tibet continued to flourish through the Nathula and Jelepla passes , offshoots of the ancient Silk Road near Gangtok. These border passes were sealed after the Sino- Indian War in 1962, and the trade came to a halt. The Nathula pass was finally opened for limited trade in 2006, fuelling hopes of economic boom.
In 1975, after years of political uncertainty and struggle, including riots, the monarchy was abrogated and Sikkim became India's twenty-second state, with Gangtok as its capital after a referendum.

 

COMMUNICATION:

The communication system in the district has gained in a rapid pace for the last few years. BSNL in the district has taken appreciable efforts in making district as a model telecom state having the highest tele-density, widest coverage of telecom facilities, providing indirect employment to the youth through cyber cafe and STD/ISD booth, providing telecom facilities in remote corner of the district laying optical fiber cable in the most difficult terrain of the country against the minimum telecom facilities some years back. There has been induction of all the new technology equipment internet node in all the district headquarters at sufficient speed. Optical fiber in almost all the telephone exchanges coverage area of telecommunication to the remote villages, very less STD ISD rates, timely billing and customer care has really given an impetuous in development of business, education efficiency of the employees, convenience to people of the district and it is really giving boost to the tourism in the state of Sikkim and it has really given boost to the tourism in the district. In addition to landlines BSNL has also provided mobile and WLL services. Other Service Providers namely Reliance, Vodafone, Airtel, Tata Indicom, Aircel are also active in the state. There are 20 telephone Exchanges in the East district (Source BSNL).

 

ADMINISTRATIVE HISTORY

The East District as a Administrative District, has its beginning only from 1973.  Before that it was a part of East Zone (region) as Sikkim State at that time was divided into two administrative Zones- East Zone and West Zone. Every Zone was under the control of Revenue Officer appointed by Chogyal ( the then king) of Sikkim and the administration of justice was in the hand of Tribal Authority like Zonepal at the district, Zone level, Yaplas Feudal Landlord, Pipon (head men), Mandal head etc. The revenue of the land used to be collected and augmented by the Mandals and Yaplas to deposit in states khazana which was most of the time in terms of food grain and some agriculture based articles.


The concept of District, first came into existence only in the year 1973 when 4 districts came into existence by a notification in the month of April. Hence East Zone was bifurcated into two districts- East District and North District while the West Zone was bifurcated into West District and South District. The District Officer was given administrative powers on behalf of the King Chogyal, the king, though the authority of Zonepal , Mandals and Yaplas was still prevailing. In 1976 the term District Collector/ District Magistrate was used for the District Officer after the merger of Sikkim in India and Shri Sonam Wangdi became the first Disrict Collector cum District Magistrate of the East District.
The order of precedence of District Collectors/ District Magistrates is as follows:



Sl No

Name

TENURE

 

 

FROM

TO

1

Shri. Sonam Wangdi, IAS

02.02.1976

27.12.1978

2

Shri. Tashi Tobden, IAS

27.12.1978

07.05.1983

3

Shri. T.T Dorjee, IAS

08.05.1983

27.11.1987

4

Shri. Alok Rawat, IAS

28.11.1987

21.07.1988

5

Shri. Lobzang Bhutia, IAS

22.07.1988

27.05.1989

6

Shri. Karma Gyatso, IAS

28.05.1989

02.02.1990

7

Smt. Jayshree Padhan, IAS

03.02.1990

14.04.1993

8

Shri. B.K Kharel, SCS

15.04.1993

01.05.1994

9

Shri. A.K Srivastava, IAS

02.05.1994

08.08.1994

10

Shri. Rajesh Agrawal, IAS

09.08.1994

14.07.1996

11

Shri. Govind Mohan, IAS

15.07.1996

28.04.1998

12

Shri. Vijay Bhusan Pathak, IAS

08.05. 1998

09.04.2003

13

Shri. K Srinivasulu, IAS

10.04.2003

30.11.2004

14

Shri. R. Telang, IAS

01.12.2004

24.01.2007

15

Shri. Vishal Chauhan, IAS

25.01. 2007

11.06.2009

16

Shri. D. Anandan, IAS

22.06.2009

01.02.2013

17

Shri. Aunjaneya Kumar Singh, IAS

01.02.2013

25.11.2013

18

Shri Jitendra Singh Raje, IAS

25.11.2013

27.02.2014

19

Shri Aunjaneya Kumar Singh, IAS

27.02.2014

01.08.2014

20

Shri Tshewang Gyachho, SCS

27.02.2014

14.11.2014

21

Shri Prabhakar Verma, IAS

14.11.2014

13.04.2018

22

Shri Kapil Meena, IAS

16.04.2018

Present

BASIC INFORMATION

Scenic beauty, colorful orchids and glorious monuments make Gangtok a fairyland attraction. Gangtok is a popular place with tourist heading on treks. Along with its natural and cultural bounties the city is dotted with beautiful monasteries and other architectural wonders. Some of these monasteries delight us with their interesting stories and beautiful artistry. Just like its magical appeal, the city is admired for its regional specialties, cleanliness, organization, beautiful maintenance and tobacco free zone.  From handicrafts to handlooms to jewelry and lots more, the city has its own unique touch, which captivates the attention of every visitor. M.G Marg situated at the heart of Gangtok is the first town in the country to be declared as litter and spit free town.


As the headquarter of East district, Gangtok  has all the head offices of different departments including Raj Bhawan, Mintokgang(Residence of the Chief Minister), the State Secretariate,  High Court of Sikkim, which is India’s smallest high court in terms of area and population of jurisdiction, the Police Headquarter are also located in Gangtok. Rongyek jail, the only jail in the state is also located in Gangtok


According to the 2011 census East Sikkim district has a population of 281,293 out of which 150260 are males and 131033 are females which constitute 45.3 % of the total population of the state of Sikkim. The District has a population density of 295 inhabitants per square kilometer (760 /sq mi).  East District has a sex ratio of 872 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 84.67%. The District is a land of diverse culture and tradition; people in East District are constituted by Nepali, Bhutia and Lepcha communities. Nepali is the predominant language in the region.

TRAVEL ACCESS

The Sikkim National Transport Bus and other four wheeler taxi serve the means of transport in the east district and connectivity to other district and neighbouring state like West Bengal. Gangtok is connected by road with Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Siliguri and also with all the district head quarters within Sikkim. The total distance of National Highway is East district is 40 kms, State highway is 250 km, major district road is 40 km and other district road is 845 km.


The distance from Gangtok to district headquarter south (Namchi) is 75.9 km and it takes approximately 1 hour 33 minutes, to district headquarter North (Mangan) is 51.7 km taking approximately 1 hour 36 minutes , to district headquarter West (Gyalshing) is 121.8 km taking approximately 2 hours 10 minutes for travel. Taxis ply routes around the city, and there are standard charges within the main areas.


By plane
The nearest airport to East district is Bagdogra (West Bengal). From there one can hire a taxi or bus service to come up to Gangtok. The distance from Bagdogra to Gangtok is 124.5 km and it takes approximately 4 hours to reach Gangtok. Helicopter/ Chopper services are also available from Bagdogra  to Gangtok. Airport construction is underway in Pakyong which is around 32 km from Gangtok.


By Train
The nearest railway station to Gangtok are Siliguri (113 km) and New Jalpaiguri (125 km) connecting Kolkata, Delhi and other important cites of the country. Rail connectivity is under construction between Rangpo in Sikkim to Siliguri in West Bengal.

 

By Road
From Bagdogra Airport and New Jalpaiguri or Siliguri railway stations one can hire a taxi  Siliguri bus stand. From there, one has the option to travel  to Gangtok by  Sikkim Nationalised Transport Buses, roughly a 5-6 hour journey. Luxury taxis/normal taxis also which can be booked at the airport or railway stations or by tour and travel operators.

AREA & ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION

East District administers 954 square km of area (95400 Hect). It is divided into four Sub-Divisions- Gangtok, Pakyong, Rongli and Rangpo. The Subdivisions are further divided into 10 Gram Vikash Kendras namely Duga, Rhenock, Pakyong, Gangtok, Rakdong Tintek, Khamdong, Ranka, Regu, Martam and Parakha . The Gram Vikash Kendras are further divided into Gram Panchayat Unit and further the villages. There are 52 Gram Panchayat Unit and 250 villages in East District. The District is headed by the District Collector, who is assisted by the Additional District Magistrates and Sub Divisional Magistrates of the respective Sub-Division. Sub Divisions are headed by the respective Sub Divisional Magistrates and the Gram Vikash Kendras are headed by the respective Gram Vikash Adhikaris (Village Development Officer). Besides these offices, some of the offices are located at the village level like VLW centers, VLO centers, etc. where a full-time government employee are posted for the service of the common people.

 

1

     

GEOLOGY & GEOMORPHOLOGY

East district is a part of the Eastern Himalayas and exhibits identical geological features as in other parts of the Eastern Himalayas.Five geological units encountered in the district are Kanchenjunga gneiss, Darjeeling gneiss, Chungthang schists and gneiss , lingtse granite gneiss and daling group of rocks consisting of Phyllite, Slates, Quartzites and Schist of Pre-Cambrian age. Quartenery deposits of alluvium are sporadically developed along the streams and rivers. Due to different sets of structural disturbance numerous fractures, faults, joints, folds etc. have developed in the rocks occuring in the district. Prominent linaments as displayed by geological formation in the area trend along N-S, E-W, NE-SW, ENE-WSW and NW-SE directions.


In the East District out of the total geographic area (964 sq km) ,  679 sq km of area is covered by forest which is 71.17 percent of the total geographic area. Very dense forest occupies162 sq km of the total geographic area, 396 sq km is occupied by the densed forest and 121 sq km is occupied by the open forest. The major physiographic units are hill, valley and slope. The major drainage system in East district are Teesta, Rangpo Chhu and Dik Chhu.

WEATHER

CLIMATE

The climate of the district has been roughly divided into the tropical, temperature and alpine zones. For most of the period in a year, the climate is cold and humid as rainfall occurs in each month. The area experiences a heavy rainfall due to its proximity to the Bay of Bengal. The general trend of decrease in temperature with increase in altitude holds good every where. Pre-monsoon rain occurs in April-May and monsoon (south-west) operates normally from the month of May and continues up to early October.

TEMPERATURE

The mean temperature in the lower altitudinal zone, it varies from 1.5 degree centigrade to 9.5 degree centigrade. Temperature varies with altitude and slope. The maximum temperature is recorded usually during July and August, and minimum during December & January. Fog is a common feature in the entire state from May to September. Biting cold is experienced at high altitude places in the winter months and snowfall is also not uncommon during this period.

RAINFALL

An examination of available rainfall data shows that the mean annual rainfall is minimum at Thangu (82 mm.) and maximum at Gangtok (3494 mm.) . An isohyatal analysis of these data reveals that there are two maximum rainfall areas (i) South-East quadrant, including including Mangan, Singhik, Dikchu, Gangtok, Rongli etc. (ii) South-West corner including Hilley. Rainfall is heavy and well distributed during the months from May to early October. July is the wettest month in most of the places. The intensity of rainfall during South-West monsoon season decreases from south to North, while the distribution of winter rainfall is in the opposite order. The highest annual rainfall for the individual station may exceed 5000 mm. and average number of rainy days ( days with rain of 2.5 mm. or more) ranges from 100 at Thangu to 184 at Gangtok.

 

WATER SOURCES AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM

RIVER SYSTEM.

Major rivers in the East district are Teesta or Tista and Rangit. Teesta can be called as Ganga of the state of Sikkim as most of the Sikkim's settlements are found along the banks of this river. The Teesta comes out as a snout from the Zemu glacier above Lachen Gompha. The Lhonk stream from the north joins it. Another stream Lachung rises from Pauhunri and meets the Teesta at Chumthang. The  minor rivers in the district areRani Khola, Busuk Khola, Rishi Khola and Ratey Chu.

WATER SOURCES AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM

Urban households in the district are supplied by the central water system maintained and operated by the Public Health and Engineering Department (PHED). The main source of PHED water supply is the Rateychu River located about 16 km (9.9 mi) from the city, at an altitude of 2,621 m (8,599 ft). Its water treatment plant is located at Selep. The river Rateychu is snow-fed and has perennial streams. Since there is no habitation in the catchment area except for a small army settlement, there is little environmental degradation and the water is of very good quality. 40 seasonal local springs are used by the Rural Management and Development Department of Sikkim Government to supply water to outlying rural areas. The entire city drains into the two rivers, Ranikhola and Roro Chu, through numerous small streams and Jhoras. Ranikhola and Roro Chu rivers confluence with Teesta River, the major source of drinking water to the population downstream. The densely populated urban area of Gangtok does not have a combined drainage system to drain out the storm water and waste water from the buildings. The estimated solid waste generated in Gangtok city is approximately 45 tonnes.  Only around 40% of this is collected by UDHD, while the remainder is indiscriminately thrown into Jhora, streets and valleys. The collected waste is disposed in a dump located about 20 km (12 mi) from the city. There is no waste collection from inaccessible areas where vehicles cannot reach, nor does any system of collection of waste exist in the adjoining rural areas. The city is under a statewide ban on the use of polythene bags.East district is mainly drained by the perennial Tista river with tributaries Dik Chhu, Rate  Chhu and Rangpo Chhu. The cultivation is done mainly by springs and surface water from Kholas.

 

PEOPLE & RECIPES

RECIPES & CUISINE.

People of the district are largely rice eaters though maize too happens to be the staple food. Inhabitants of the district also consume dals (lentils), fresh vegetables, bamboo shoots, wild flowers, mushrooms and nettle leaves in their regular meals. On the non-vegetarian side, beef, pork and fish are popular items. Meat and dairy products are consumed depending on their availability in different regions. Practice of eating fermented vegetables and beverages is a norm in the tradition. This helps to preserve vegetables when they become out of season. Soups, an assortment of pickles (a unique one with a each dish) and a variety of beverages make the food more delightful and help the people to face the chilly weather of the district. The famous recipes of East district are:

 

1. Momo (steamed dumpling) 
2. Tomato Achar (Pickle)
3. Thukpa /Gya-Thuk (Noodle soup) 
4. Kinema curry (Fermented soybean)
5. Gundruk and Sinki Soup (Fermented vegetable)
6. Gundruk ko Achar (Pickle)

  

7. Chhurpi Soup (Traditional cottage cheese)
8. Chhurpi ka Achar (Pickle)
9. Chhurpi-Ningro Curry (Chhurpi with wild fern)
10. Sel Roti (Fermented rice product)
11. Shimi ko Achar (String bean pickle) 
12. Mesu Pickle (Fermented bamboo shoot)

  

PEOPLE

East district is a homogeneous blend of multi- communities, multi- culture, multi-religions and customs. The district, traditionally home of many ethnic groups is largely constituted of three ethnic groups, namely, the Lepchas, the Bhutias and the Nepalese. The Lepchas stated to be aborigines comprise of 10% of the population, followed by 12% of Bhutias and 70% of the population by Nepalese.
The schedule tribes comprise  of Lepchas, Bhutias, Sherpas, Limboos, Tamangs etc,  whereas the schedule castes comprises of Kami, Damai, Lohar,Sarki and Majhi etc
As per the religious groupings, Hindus are 60% of the population, followed by 30% of the population by the Buddhist, 8% Christians and 2% by others.

Lepchas 
The Lepchas said to be aborigins of Sikkim are of mongoloid descent. There are different theories regarding the origins of Lepchas. The most widely accepted theory relating to their origin is that the Lepchas are originated from Sino- tar Platue of Burma. The major concentration of Lepchas can be found in Dzongu in north district and Dikchu in east Sikkim, Rinchenpong in west sikkim and several other parts. In order to preserve this fast vanishing tribe, the chogyal had declared Dzongu as a Lepcha reserve. Non Lepchas were thus barred settling there. Before adopting Buddhism or christianity as their religion, the earliest Lepcha settlers were believers in the bon faith or mune faith, which is based on spirits, witch- craftry, exorcism and nature worshiping. Hence, Lepchas, are shy and quiet in nature, prefer living in complete harmony with nature and its natural surroundings. One of the important deity of the Lepchas, Tamsangthing is said to have invented the rich Lepcha script.

Bhutias
The Bhutias are believed to have originally come from the Kham area of Tibet, by following prince Khey Bhumsa.They  are evenly distributed throughout the state of Sikkim. In northern Sikkim where they are the major inhabitants, they are known as the Lachenpas and Lachungpas and they inhabit the areas around Lachen and Lachung respectively having their own traditional legal system known as ‘Zumsa’ and with its legal head ‘pipon’. The Bhutia aristocrats are known as the Kazis. The Language spoken by the Bhutia is Sikkimese which is in fact a dialect of Tibetan language and has the same script as Tibetans. They love festivities, songs and music and have an impressive tradition handloom and handicrafts.

Nepalis
The Nepalis now constitute more than 80% of the total population of Sikkim considerably out numbering the Lepchas and the Bhutias. The majority community of Nepalis began coming to Sikkim somewhere in 1860s with the then ruler of Sikkim granting a lease in Sikkim to some Nepali traders.  Due to their adjusting nature and hard work, the Nepali setters introduced the terraced system of cultivation and this brought large tracts of hilly terrain to yield crops productivity. Major sub-cultural stocks of the Nepalese are the Kiratis who along with the Lepchas are said to be the aborigines of Sikkim. Some of the major Nepali social groups are Limboo, Tamang, Gurung, Newar, Mangar, Sunwar etc. The language spoken by the Nepalis are Nepali and have the devanagri script. The Nepali language is also used as the common language spoken for interaction by every community. Majority of the Nepalis are devout Hindus. They have fabulous art, cultural traditions, folk lores, legends, rituals, believes and practices.

 

 

CULTURE & MUSIC AND FOLK DANCES

CULTURE

Sikkim finds a unique place in the Indian Union in respect of her rich and unique culture and tradition.  It is a place where different communities  with their cultures, religions, traditions and customs  live   together   in  perfect harmony  and this makes the  culture of Sikkim   not only distinct but also   a perfect   blend of   the  culture and tradition of various ethnic communities.
The three main ethnic communities of Sikkim are the Bhutias, the Lepchas and the Nepalese. The business community forms   the fourth ethnic community   of Sikkim who are basically settled in urban areas.  These ethnic communities     have their own cultures and traditions but     at the time of celebrating their main festivals,  the members of all other ethnic communities are invited to celebrate the same together.  This reflects   how Sikkim   has been following the age-old   Indian    tradition of universal brotherhood i.e. basudhaiwa kutumbakam since long.  
In so far as caste system in Sikkim is concerned, there exists   no caste system in the state .  Both   men and women   have been given the liberty to   enter into marital relations   with the members of any caste or faith.
Though   Buddhism and Hinduism  are the  two  prominent  religious  practices  followed by   a large chunk of people  here, people also follow Christianity , Islamism and Sikhism. The highest Gurudwara of the country is situated in Gurudongmar Lake in North Sikkim at an  altitude of 17,100 feet.. The  108 feet  Statue of Guru Padmasambhava at  Samdruptse , the Chardham in Namchi   and the Buddha Park at Ravangla , the Sai Temple  at  Daramdin, the Sridi Temple at Assanthang   are the examples  of   how   the Government  has   been promoting  the  symbols of religious faiths  in the Sate. There has been no record of any religious   riots in the State as of now since her merger with the mainstream. This  shows how secular in attitude the   people of Sikkim are.
Both men and women enjoy   equal status in the society. Hence there is no   issue of gender inequality   in the State- again unique example of a State where   women enjoy their rightful place in the society without any fear.
Sikkim is also known for its rich culture of handicrafts. With the effort of the Government to promote   arts and crafts of Sikkim, a dedicated Handicrafts and Handloom Institute has been set up in the State. This Institute encourages preserving traditional cottage art and craft of Sikkimese design which includes carpets, wood carved furniture and thanka etc.

 

MUSIC AND FOLK DANCES

 

The three ethnic communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis constitute the folk dances and songs which are an ingrained part of Sikkimese culture. This music and folk dances relate to the beauty of the natural surroundings, depicting the harvest season and are performed for good luck and prosperity.
Some of the popular music and folk dances are described below:

  • Nepali folk dance “Maruni” - It is one of the oldest and popular group dance form of the Nepali community, usually performed by three male dancers and the three female dancers. The dancers are usually accompanied by a clown called “Dhatu waray”. Sometimes Maruni dances are performed to the accompaniment of the nine instrument orchestra known as “Nau-mati Baja”.
  • Nepali folk danceTamamg Selo”-This group dance of Tamang community is performed to the rhythmic sound of “Dhamphu”, a musical instrument and hence are also called “Dhamphu “ dance.
  • Lepcha folk dance”Zo Mal Lok”-This dance portrays the sowing, reaping and harvesting of paddy.
  • The dance is performed by the Lepcha farmers to reduce the drudgery and monotony of working in the fields.
  • Bhutia folk dance”Tashi Sabdo”-This age old group dance beautifully and gracefully shows the customs of offering khadas (Scarfs) 0n auspicious occasion. The dancers dance to the melodious tunes dully supported by musical instrument such as Yarkha, Drum, Flute and Yangjey.
  • Tibetan Yak Dance-This dance is performed to honour the Yak, an animal, to show the utility of Yak to a common man in a high altitude area. Though Chhams are performed in all the monasteries of Sikkim, the ones performed at Pemayangtse, Rumtek and Enchey Monastery being impressive draws a large number of audiences.

The other popular dances are Subba Chabrung Dance,Bhutia Talachi,Tibetan Singhi Chaam,the Sherpa Sebru Naach,Gurung Sorathi,Bhutia Lu-Khang thamo,Lepcha Kar Gnpk lok,Bhutia Gha-to-Kito,Lepcha Dhamra Jo,Bhutia Be-yul-mista,Lepcha Mon-Dryak-Lok,Nepali Dhaan Naach and Bhutia Chi-Rimu.

 

COSTUME AND ORNAMENTS

A Lepcha male wears Thakro, a colourful sheet, yenthatse (shirt) and a shambo (cap).The Lepcha female dress comprises of Dumbun (a kind of sheet worn in sari style), Tago (loose blouse), Nyumrek (belt) and taro (cap). The beautiful ornaments used by the Lepcha women are Namchok (ear ring), Lyak (necklace), Gyar (bracelet) etc.


The attire of Bhutia male consists of Kho (Bakhu), Jya (waist coat), Yenthatse (shirt), Kera (cloth belt)and Shambo (cap).The Bhutia female dress are: kho (Bakhu), Hanju (loose blouse), Kushen(Jacket),Shambo (Cap different in design than used by men),and Shabcha(Shoe), Pangden, the striped apron is a symbol of married Bhutia women. The jewellery items used by the Bhutia women are known as Yencho (ear ring),Khao(necklace),Phiru (pearl ornament),Diu(gold bangle),and Joko (ring).


The Nepali men wears a shirt known as Daura, while their churidar pajama is known as shurval, the waist coat is known as Aaskot and their belt is known as Patuki.The colorful sari worn by a Nepali woman is known as Pharia, their long loose blouse tied from four side is known as Chaubandi Cholo,while another type of popular blouse is known as Jharo Cholo. A piece of printed cloth covering the upper portion of the body is known as Hembri, whereas a colorful piece hanging from the head to waist during a dance performance is known as “Pachauri’.The ornaments used by Nepali women are Shirbandi(Tiara),Kantha(Necklace),Nau-geri(Necklace of pearl),Charani hari(Another type of Necklace),Tilhari(Green bead with a Long gold pendantworn normally by married women), Bulaki (Nose- ring), Dungri (Nose-Pin), Tik Mala, chandrahar, Chepti Sun (Ear-Ring), Gadwari(Ear-Ring), Chura of silver (Bracelet) and Kalli, thivk heavy Payalmade of silver.

MINERAL RESOURCES & AGRICULTURE AND LAND USE PATTERN

Minerals found in the East district include coal, copper, limestone and graphite. Copper deposits are found in East Sikkim. Two deposits, one at Rangpo and the other near Dikchu (north of Gangtok) are being explored. Both are small, multimetal deposits. Sikkim Mining Corporation is working on the copper deposits which envisages mining and milling only. Coal is found at Rangit Rivers. The coal is reportedly non-cooking variety, low in moisture and volatile matter and high in fixed carbon. Crystalline limestone has been reported from Chhangu . Iron occurs chiefly as pyrites in association with chalcopryite. It is most plentiful at Bhotang, where magnetite also occurs. The iron ores have nowhere been put to any economic use.It is abundant in the gneiss and mica schists at places. But it does not appear to be fit for the market.

Agriculture in the East District is of the mixed type and still at the subsistence level rather than commercial level.The district has been divided into three agro- ecological systems mainly low altitude, mid altitude and high altitude. The farming system in all the three altitudes are the same taking into consideration all the other factors like soil (acidic in all), rainfall (between 120-355mm), physiographic (steep rocky terrain), irrigation pattern (rain fed mostly) and temperature (between -50 to 280). Major Crops grown in the district are: Paddy, Wheat, Maize, Finger Millet, Buckwheat, Urd, Orange, Vegetables (Cabbage, cauliflower, radish, beans), cardamom, Ginger Crop Rotations (Maize + Soyabean+ Wheat, Paddy and Finger Millet). The Crop sequence followed are Wheat, Maize and Millet , the inter cropping pattern followed in the district is Maize + Soyabean, Maize + Beans and the Mixed cropping pattern followed are Maize + Soyabean, Finger Millet + Soyabean and Orange + maize + Ginger. The land utilization pattern of the district as per statistical profile is , the geographical area is 95400 hectares , net sown area is 18122 hectares, fallow land is 7849 hectares and the land not available for cultivation is 4871 hectares.

Total Main Cultivator population

Male

Female

Rural

Urban

 

 

 

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

22325

13135

9190

21987

12918

9069

338

217

121

Total Main Agriculture population

Male

Female

Rural

Urban

 

 

 

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

5127

3025

2102

4822

2824

1998

305

201

104